Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine




The singly charged ions are extremely important for maintaining the osmotic pressure.


In order to maintain the extremely sensitive balance of ion distribution between different types of tissue, which is important for many natural functions, a variety of transport and distribution mechanisms are needed.


The metals are complexed using specific ligands and are transported between different compartments with the help of sophisticated ion pumps and channels.


                             Ion concentration (mmol/l)
      Na+      K+     Ca2+      Cl-
sea water     400      10      10     550
red blood cells      11      92      10-4      50
blood plasma    160      10        2    100